For the year ended December 31, 2016, our global total revenue was $6.4 billion. For the same period, fee revenue of $5.3 billion was generated as follows:
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In the Americas, our total RES revenue of $3.0 billion for the year ended December 31, 2016, was derived from the following countries in the proportions indicated below:
In EMEA, our total RES revenue of $2.1 billion for the year ended December 31, 2016, was derived from the following countries in the proportions indicated below:
In Asia Pacific, our total RES revenue of $1.4 billion for the year ended December 31, 2016, was derived from the following countries in the proportions indicated below:
Our product categories, and the services we provide within them, include:
1 | Leasing Services
Agency Leasing Services executes marketing and leasing programs on behalf of investors, developers, property companies and public entities to secure tenants, and negotiate leases with terms that reflect our clients' best interests. In 2016, we completed approximately 20,186 agency leasing transactions representing 334 million square feet of space. Our agency leasing fees are typically based on a percentage of the value of the lease revenue commitment for consummated leases, although in some cases they are based on a dollar amount per square foot leased.
Tenant Representation Services establishes strategic alliances with clients to deliver ongoing assistance to meet their real estate needs and to help them evaluate and execute transactions in line with their occupancy requirements. Tenant Representation Services is also an important component of our local market services. We assist clients by defining space requirements, identifying suitable alternatives, recommending appropriate occupancy solutions, negotiating lease and ownership terms with landlords, and reducing real estate costs for clients through analyzing, structuring, and negotiating business and economic incentives. We help our clients lower their real estate costs, minimize real estate occupancy risks, improve occupancy control and flexibility, and create more productive office environments. We employ a multi-disciplinary approach to develop occupancy strategies linked to our clients' core business objectives.
We determine Tenant Representation Services fees on a negotiated fee basis. In various markets, landlords may be responsible for paying them. Fees sometimes reflect performance measures related to targets that we and our clients establish prior to engagement or, in the case of strategic alliances, at future annual intervals. We use quantitative and qualitative measurements to assess performance relative to these goals, and we may be awarded incentive fees for superior performance. In 2016, we completed approximately 18,591 tenant representation transactions representing 494 million square feet of space.
2 | Property and Facility Management
Property Management Services provides on-site management services to real estate owners for office, industrial, retail, multifamily residential and specialty properties. We seek to leverage our market share and buying power to deliver superior service and value to clients. Our goal is to enhance our clients' property values through aggressive day-to-day management. We may provide services through our own employees or through contracts with third-party providers. We focus on maintaining high levels of occupancy and tenant satisfaction while lowering property operating costs. During 2016, we provided on-site property management services for properties totaling approximately 3.0 billion square feet.
We typically provide property management services through an on-site general manager and staff. We support them with regional supervisory teams and central resources in such areas as training, technical and environmental services, accounting, marketing, and human resources. Our general managers are responsible for property management activities, client satisfaction and financial results. We do not compensate them with commissions, but rather with a combination of base salary and a performance bonus that is directly linked to results they produce for their clients. In some cases, management agreements provide for incentive compensation relating to operating expense reductions, gross revenue or occupancy objectives, or tenant satisfaction levels. Consistent with industry custom, management contract terms typically range from one to three years, although some contracts are terminable at will at any time following a short notice period, usually 30 to 120 days, as is typical in the industry.
Integrated Facility Management Services provides comprehensive portfolio and facility management services to corporations and institutions that outsource the management of the real estate they occupy. Facilities under management range from corporate headquarters to industrial complexes. During 2016, Integrated Facility Management Services managed approximately 1.4 billion square feet of real estate for its clients. Our target clients typically have large portfolios (usually over one million square feet) that offer significant opportunities to reduce costs and improve service delivery. The competitive trends of globalization, outsourcing, and off-shoring have prompted many of these clients to demand consistent service delivery worldwide and a single point of contact from their real estate service providers. We generally develop performance measures to quantify the progress we make toward goals and objectives that we have mutually determined. Depending on client needs, our Integrated Facility Management Services units, either alone or partnering with other business units to benefit from their particular expertise or local market knowledge, provide services that include portfolio planning, property management, agency leasing, tenant representation, acquisition, finance, disposition, development management, energy and sustainability services, technology solutions, and land advisory services. We may provide services through our own employees or through contracts with third-party providers (as to which we may act in a principal capacity or which we may hire as an agent acting on behalf of our clients).
Our Integrated Facility Management Services units are compensated on the basis of negotiated fees that we typically structure to include a base fee and a performance bonus. We generally base performance bonus compensation on a quantitative evaluation of progress toward performance measures and regularly scheduled client satisfaction surveys. Integrated Facility Management Services agreements are typically three to five years in duration, although most contracts are terminable at will by the client upon a short notice period, usually 30 to 60 days, as is typical in the industry.
In August 2016, we completed the acquisition of Integral UK Ltd., a leading provider of mechanical and electrical property maintenance, which strengthened our Integrated Facilities Management capabilities and made us one of the largest providers of mobile engineering services for property worldwide, adding approximately 1,500 technicians and engineers.
In the United States, the U.K. and selected other countries, we provide Mobile Engineering Services to clients with large portfolios of sites or where we have multiple clients in proximity to each other. Rather than using multiple vendors to perform facility services, these companies hire JLL to provide HVAC, electrical and plumbing services, and general interior repair and maintenance. Our multi-disciplined mobile engineers serve numerous clients in a specified geographic area, performing multiple tasks in a single visit and taking ownership of the operational success of the sites they service. This service delivery model reduces clients' operating costs by bundling on-site services, leveraging resources across multiple accounts and reducing travel time between sites.
We also provide Lease Administration and Auditing Services, helping clients centralize their lease management processes. Whether clients have a small number of leases or a global portfolio, we assist them by reducing costs associated with incorrect lease charges, right-sizing their portfolios through lease options, identifying underutilized assets and ensuring regulatory compliance to mitigate risk.
3 | Project and Development Services
Project and Development Services provides a variety of services to tenants of leased space, owners in self-occupied buildings, and owners of real estate investments. These include conversion management, move management, design and construction management, and strategic occupancy planning services. Project & Development Services frequently manages relocation and build-out initiatives for clients of our Property Management Services, Integrated Facility Management Services, and Tenant Representation Services units. Project & Development Services also manages all aspects of development and renovation of commercial projects for our clients, serving as a general contractor in some cases. Additionally, we provide these services to public-sector clients, particularly to military and government entities and educational institutions, primarily in the United States, and to a limited but growing extent in other countries.
Our Project & Development Services business is generally compensated on the basis of negotiated fees. Client contracts are typically multi-year in duration and may govern a number of discrete projects, with individual projects being completed in less than one year.
In a growing number of countries, we provide fit-out and refurbishment services on a principal basis under the Tetris brand, which is an outgrowth of a previous acquisition we completed through our French business.
4 | Capital Markets and Hotels
Capital Markets and Hotels Services includes property sales and acquisitions, real estate financings, private equity placements, portfolio advisory activities and corporate finance advice and execution. We provide these services with respect to substantially all types of properties. In the United States, we operate a multifamily lending and commercial loan servicing platform and for a number of years we have been a Freddie Mac Program Plus® Seller/Servicer. With our acquisition of Oak Grove Capital in 2015, we have added Fannie Mae and HUD/GNMA multifamily lending services capabilities. Real Estate Investment Banking Services includes sourcing capital, both in the form of equity and debt, derivatives structuring, and other traditional investment banking services designed to assist investor and corporate clients in maximizing the value of their real estate. To meet client demands for marketing real estate assets internationally and investing outside of their home markets, our Capital Markets Services teams combine local market knowledge with our access to global capital sources to provide superior execution in raising capital for real estate transactions. By researching, developing, and introducing innovative new financial products and strategies, Capital Markets Services is also integral to the business development efforts of our other businesses.
Clients typically compensate Capital Markets Services units on the basis of the value of transactions completed or securities placed. In certain circumstances, we receive retainer fees for portfolio advisory services. Real Estate Investment Banking fees are generally transaction-specific and conditioned upon the successful completion of the transaction.
We also deliver specialized Capital Markets Services for hotel and hospitality assets and portfolios on a global basis, including investment sales, mergers and acquisitions, and financing. We provide services to assets that span the hospitality spectrum: luxury properties; resorts; select service and budget hotels; golf courses; theme parks; casinos; spas; and pubs.
We provide Value Recovery Services to owners, investors and occupiers to help them analyze the impact of a possible financial downturn on their assets and identify solutions that allow them to respond decisively. In this area, we address the operational and occupancy needs of banks and insurance companies that are merging with or acquiring other institutions. We assist banks and insurance companies with challenged assets and liabilities on their balance sheets by providing valuations, asset management, loan servicing, and disposition services. We provide receivership services and special asset servicing capabilities to lenders, loan servicers, and financial institutions that need help managing defaulted real estate assets. In addition, we provide valuation, asset management, and disposition services to government entities to maximize the value of owned securities and assets acquired from failed financial institutions or from government relief programs. We also assist owners by identifying potentially distressed properties and the major occupiers who are facing challenges.
5 | Advisory, Consulting and Other Services
Valuation Services provides clients with professional valuation services to help them determine market values for office, retail, industrial, and mixed-use properties. Such services may involve valuing a single property or a global portfolio of multiple property types. We conduct valuations, which typically involve commercial property, for a variety of purposes, including acquisitions, dispositions, debt and equity financings, mergers and acquisitions, securities offerings (including initial public offerings), and privatization initiatives. Clients include occupiers, investors, and financing sources from the public and private sectors. Historically, our valuation specialists provided services outside of the United States, but in 2016 we acquired valuations businesses in the United States as well in order to expand our service offering in that country. We usually negotiate compensation for valuation services based on the scale and complexity of each assignment, and our fees typically relate in part to the value of the underlying assets.
Consulting Services delivers innovative, results-driven real estate solutions that align strategically and tactically with clients' business objectives. We provide clients with specialized, value-added real estate consulting services in such areas as mergers and acquisitions, occupier portfolio strategy, workplace solutions, location advisory, financial optimization strategies, organizational strategy, and Six Sigma process solutions. Our professionals focus on translating global best practices into local real estate solutions, creating optimal financial and operational results for our clients.
We also provide Advisory Services for hotels, including hotel valuations and appraisals, acquisition advice, asset management, strategic planning, management contract negotiation, consulting, industry research and project and development services for asset types spanning the hospitality spectrum.
We typically negotiate compensation for Consulting and Advisory Services based on developed work plans that vary based on the scope and complexity of projects.
We provide Energy and Sustainability Services to occupiers and investors to help them develop their corporate sustainability strategies, green their real estate portfolios, reduce their energy consumption and carbon footprint, upgrade building performance by managing Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ("LEED") construction or retrofits and provide sustainable building operations management. We have more than 1,500 energy and sustainability accredited professionals. In our latest Global Sustainability Report from 2015, we documented $47 million in estimated energy savings for our U.S. clients and reduced their greenhouse gas emissions by 247,000 tons. Our sustainability teams worked on more than 11,400 buildings in 2015.
We generally negotiate compensation for Energy and Sustainability Services for each assignment based on shared savings or the scale and complexity of the project.